Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)

  • The most common malignancy of childhood
  • Accounts for 80% of childhood leukaemias
  • Peak age 2-5years
  • Boys slightly more than Girls

Clinical Features are divided into:

  1. Those predictable by bone marrow failure
  2. Other features

Clinical Features of bone marrow failure:

  • Anaemia
    • Lethargy
    • Pallor
  • Neutropaenia
    • frequent/severe infections
  • Thrombocytopenia
    • Easy Bruising
    • Petechiae

Other Features:

  1. Bone Pain
  2. Splenomegaly
  3. Hepatomegaly
  4. Testicular swelling

Types of ALL

  • Common ALL (75%) CD10 present, pre-B phenotype
  • T-cell ALL (20%)
  • B-cell ALL (5%)

Poor Prognostic Factors

  • Age <2 or >10years
  • WBC > 20 at diagnosis
  • T or B cell suface markers
  • Non-caucasian
  • Male